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Long live decentralized bitcoin(!) A reading list
Newbs might not know this, but bitcoin recently came out of an intense internal drama. Between July 2015 and August 2017 bitcoin was attacked by external forces who were hoping to destroy the very properties that made bitcoin valuable in the first place. This culminated in the creation of segwit and the UASF (user activated soft fork) movement. The UASF was successful, segwit was added to bitcoin and with that the anti-decentralization side left bitcoin altogether and created their own altcoin called bcash. Bitcoin's price was $2500, soon after segwit was activated the price doubled to $5000 and continued rising until a top of $20000 before correcting to where we are today. During this drama, I took time away from writing open source code to help educate and argue on reddit, twitter and other social media. I came up with a reading list for quickly copypasting things. It may be interesting today for newbs or anyone who wants a history lesson on what exactly happened during those two years when bitcoin's very existence as a decentralized low-trust currency was questioned. Now the fight has essentially been won, I try not to comment on reddit that much anymore. There's nothing left to do except wait for Lightning and similar tech to become mature (or better yet, help code it and test it) In this thread you can learn about block sizes, latency, decentralization, segwit, ASICBOOST, lightning network and all the other issues that were debated endlessly for over two years. So when someone tries to get you to invest in bcash, remind them of the time they supported Bitcoin Unlimited. For more threads like this see UASF
What's the f*****ng benefit of the reactivated OP_Codes?
Nobody explained what we can do with the soon to be reactivated OP_Codes for Bitcoin Cash, and nobody explained why we need them. It's a fact that there are risks associated with them, and there is no sufficient testing of these risks by independent developers, nor is there a sufficient explanation why they carry no risk. BitcoinABC developers, explain yourselves, please. Edit: Instead of calling me a troll, please answer the question. If not, ask someone else. Edit Edit: tomtomtom7 provided a resfreshing answer on the question: https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/7z3ly4/to_the_people_who_thing_we_urgently_need_to_add/dulkmnf/
The OP_Codes were disabled because bugs were found, and worry existed that more bugs could exist. They are now being re-enabled with these bugs fixed, with sufficient test cases and they will be put through thorough review. These are missing pieces in the language for which various use cases have been proposed over the years. The reason to include these, is because all developers from various implementations have agreed that this is a good idea. No objections are raised. Note that this does not mean that all these OP_Codes will make it in the next hardfork. This is obviously uncertain when testing and reviewing is still being done. This is not yet the case for OP_GROUP. Some objection and questions have been raised which takes time to discuss and time to come to agreement. IMO this is a very healthy process.
One precise thing: Allowing more bitwise logical operators can (will) yield smaller scripts, this saves data on the blockchain, the hex code gets smaller.
Here is a detailled answer. I did not goe through it if it is satisfying, but at least it is a very good start, Thank you silverjustice.
But further, if you want specific advantages for some of these, then I recommend you check out the below from the scaling Bitcoin conference: opcodes are very useful, such as in for example with CAT you can do tree signatures even if you have a very complicated multisig design using CAT you could reduce that size to log(n) size. It would be much more compact. Or with XOR we could do some kind of deterministic random number generator by combining secret values from different parties so that nobody could cheat. They could combine and generate a new random number. If people think-- ... we could use LEFT to make weaker hash. These opcodes were re-enabled in sidechain elements project. It's a sidechain from Bitcoin Core. We can reintroduce these functions to bitcoin. The other problem are the ... numeric operations which were disabled by Satoshi. There's another problem. Which is that the range of values accepted by script is limited and confused because the CScript.. is processed at ..... bit integers internally. But to these opcodes it's only 32 bits at most. So it's quite confusing. The other problem is that we have this.. it requires 251 encode or calculate or manipulate this number. So we need at least 52 bits. But right now it is only 32 bits. So the proposal is to expand the valid input range to 7 bytes which would allow 56 bits. And it limits the maximum size to 7 bytes so we could have the same size for inputs and outputs. For these operations, we could re-enable them within these safe limits. It would be safe for us to have these functions again. The other problem is that we currently cannot commit to additional scripts. In the original design of bitcoin, we could have script operations inside of the signature. But the problem is that the signature is not covered by the signature itself. So any script in the scriptSig is modifiable by any third party in the network. For example, if we tried to do a CHECKSIG operation in the signature, people could simply replace it with an OP_0 and invalidate the transaction. This is a bypass of the.. signature check in the scriptSig. But actually this function is really useful, for example, we can do... delegation, people could add additional scripts to a new UTXO without first spending it. So people could do something like let's say to let their son spend their coin within a year if it is not first spent otherwise.. and also, people, talk about replay protection. So we have some ohter new opcode like pushing the blockhash to the stack, with this function we could have replay protection to make sure the transaction is valid only in a specified blockchain. So the proposal is that in the future the CHECKSIG should have the ability to sign additional script and to execute these scripts. And finally the other problem is that the script has limited access to different parts of the transaction. There is only one type of operation that allowed to investigate different parts of the transaction, which is CHECKSIG and CHECKMULTISIG. But it is very limited. There are sighash limitations here... there are only 6 types of sighash. The advantage of doing this is that it's very compact and could use only one byte to indicate which component to sign. But the problem is that it's inflexible. The meaning of this sighash is set at the beginning and you can't change it. You need a new witness version to have another checksig. And the other problem is that the sighash can be complex and people might make mistakes so Satoshi made this mistake in the sighash design such as the well-known bug in validation time and also the SIGHASH_SINGLE bug. It's not easy to prevent. The proposal is that we might have the next generation of sighash (sighashv2) to expand to two bytes, allow it to cover different parts of the transaction and allow people to choose which components they would like to sign. This would allow more flexibility and hopefully not overly complicated. But still this is probably not enough for more flexible design. Another proposal is OP_PUSHTXDATA which pushes the value of different components of a transaction to the stack. It's easy to implement, for example, we could just push the scriptpubkey of the second output to the stack, okay. So it is actually easier to implement. We could do something more than just... because we have sighash, we could check where something is equal to the specified value. But if we could push the value, like the value of an output to the stack, then we could use other operations like more than or less than and then we could do something like checking whether the value of output x must be at least y bitcoin, which is a fixed value. There are some other useful functions like MAST which would allow for more compact scripts by hiding the other unexecuted branches. There's also aggregation that would allow n-of-n multisig to be reduced to a single signature and so on. In the elements project, they implemented CHECKSIGFROMSTACK where they don't check the transaction structure but instead they verify a message on the stack. So it could be some message like not bitcoin maybe, perhaps cross-chain swap, or another bitcoin UTXO. And also we might have some elliptic curve point addition and operations which are also useful in lightning network design. Here are some related works in progress. If you are interested in this topic, I would like to encourage you to join our discussions because it's a very active topic. jl2012 bip114 MAST, maaku's MBV, luke-jr or version-1 witness program, Simplicity, etc. so you have your script template the amount value and there is a block impactor beause we have the sha chain whih allows you to hae the hashes.. we can hae that errortate constant beause you need the HTLC chashes, to properly reoke the prior states and if you an't do that then you can't onstruct the redeem script. Right now it ineeds a signature for eery state, you need all the HTLCs, it needs the netowrk erification state, and there's another cool thing you can do with which is like trap door erification and you can include it in the transaction itself and there can be a alsue where there is some margin for it.. Which make sit powerful, and then you can make it more private with these constructs. We only have a few minutes left, we can cover this. One furthe rthing is that in the transformation, we have privacy issue because we need to keep going forward, we need to have hte private state, so there's a history of this in the ages in the past, the current one used replications, which was one of the cool things about lightning. We used to have deckman signatures we had a sequence value of like 30 days, we did an update, we had to switch sides then we make it 29 then 27 etc. You can only broadcast the most recent state because otherwise the other party can transact the other transaction. If you start with 30 days then you can only do about 30 bidirectiona lswitches. Then there was cdecker's payment channels where you have a root tree and every time you need to- you had two payment channels, you had to rebalance htem and then it's on your part of the channel you can reset the channel state. You can do 30 this way, you have another tree, you can do it that way, and then there's a new version of it in the indefinite lifetime... by keeping the transaction in CSV, the drawback on that paproahc because you have al arge validation tree, in the worst cas eyou have 8 or 10 on the tree, and then you nee dfor the prior state and then you do the 12 per day, and every time you have to make a state, you have to revoke the preimage from the prior state, this is cool because if they ever broadcast the entire state, eahc one has the caluse so that you can draw the entire money in the event o f a violation. There are some limitations for doing more complex verifications and you have this log(n) state that you have to deal with ehen you deal with that. We're going to do the key power on the stack to limit key verifications on this main contract. this is all composable. You can do discreet log contracts. You can now check signtures on arbitrary messages. You can sign a message nad then we can enforce structure on the messages themselves. Right now you need to have sequene numbers. So each state we are going to increment the sequence numbers. So you give me a siequence number on that state. On the touputs we have a commitment ot the sequence number and the value r. So people on chain will know that how many places we did in that itself. The ool part about this is that because we have a seq number then I have the one if it's highest neough. Then I am opening that commitment to say this is state 5 and I present to you a new signed ommitment and open that as well, that's in a validation state. The cool things is that you only need one of those m. So we have to some auxiliary state, and each time I have a new state I an drop the old state. I have a signed commitment to revoke the prior state. This is a ibg deal beause the state is much smaller. Currently we require you to fwe use a state mahcine on state 2, and it also has implications for verifications and watch tower So on lightning, there's this technique itself- it's timelocks CSV value and if you can't react within that value then you can't go to court and enforce judgement on this attacker. So the watchtower is a requirement, you delegate the state watching to the watchtower. They know which channels you're watching. You send some initial points, like a script template. For every one you send the signautre and the verification state. They can use the verification stat ethat collapses into a log(n) tree, you can basically use state where you send half the txids, you can decrypt this in... some time.
Bitcoin dev IRC meeting in layman's terms (2015-10-15)
Once again my attempt to summarize and explain the weekly bitcoin developer meeting in layman's terms. Link to last weeks summarization Disclaimer Please bear in mind I'm not a developer and I'd have problems coding "hello world!", so some things might be incorrect or plain wrong. Like any other write-up it likely contains personal biases, although I try to stay as neutral as I can. There are no decisions being made in these meetings, so if I say "everyone agrees" this means everyone present in the meeting, that's not consensus, but since a fair amount of devs are present it's a good representation. The dev IRC and mailinglist are for bitcoin development purposes. If you have not contributed actual code to a bitcoin-implementation, this is probably not the place you want to reach out to. There are many places to discuss things that the developers read, including this sub-reddit. link to this week logsMeeting minutes by meetbot Main topics discussed where: Mempool limiting sendheaders BIP versionbits dev/discuss list policy CHECKSEQUENCEVERIFY Mempool limiting
When a transaction is relayed across the network it is held by the nodes in memory, until it gets into a block. All these transactions that sit in memory are called the memorypool or mempool for short. Like we could see during the spam-attack if there's a big back-log of transactions that couldn't make it in the blockchain this mempool can get pretty big resulting in nodes crashing. To stop this from happening devs are trying to find a way to limit this mempool, so a mechanism to reject and/or remove transactions from the mempool. The hard part here is to make it so nodes can't be attacked by abusing this mechanism. So far the devs are going with TheBlueMatt's proposal of throwing away the cheapest txn and setting the min relay fee to it
While testing, sipa encountered transactions that took 200ms to be accepted into the mempool. As it's the first time he has benchmarked this and the pull-request shouldn't make an impact on these times it likely doesn't have anything to do with this. However, such times are bad either way. The average time in sipa's tests is 4ms. (After the meeting Morcos did some benchmarking and confirmed it was not specific to this PR, and pointed out the outliers come from CheckInputs and HaveInputs (as you might guess, having to do with checking the inputs) Question on why we should revert the minrelay (minimum fee for nodes to relay a transaction) back to 1000 (it has been set to 5000 to quick-fix the mempool issues), sipa thinks it should be floating as well or the dust limit becomes ineffective.
send headers BIP Copy/paste from the BIP: Since the introduction of "headers-first" downloading of blocks in 0.10, blocks will not be processed unless they are able to connect to a (valid) headers chain. Consequently, block relay generally works as follows:
A node (N) announces the new tip with an "inv" message, containing the block hash
A peer (P) responds to the "inv" with a "getheaders" message (to request headers up to the new tip) and a "getdata" message for the new tip itself
N responds with a "headers" message (with the header for the new block along with any preceding headers unknown to P) and a "block" message containing the new block However, in the case where a new block is being announced that builds on the tip, it would be generally more efficient if the node N just announced the block header for the new block, rather than just the block hash, and saved the peer from generating and transmitting the getheaders message (and the required block locator).
Question on how to move forward. How to let the nodes know you want the blockheader instead of the blockhash. Options:
Send a "sendheaders" message early when connecting so the way peers want their block announcement is immediately known.
Send a "sendheaders" message at any time, changing the way peers want their block announcement from hashes to headers.
No one likes to extend the version message further. There's no strong advantage to have an "options" message over a "sendheaders" message. Having the message being sent early on might be too constraining. Possible usecase from morcos: "its entirely possible some future optimization may say, i want to send sendheaders to these peers b/c they announce a lot of new stuff to me and not these others b/c they don't". Most people like this to be enable-only, so no message to get back to receiving blockhashes. Which is how the BIP was drafted.
sdaftuar does a pull-request for the BIP to get a number assigned and proceeds with the BIP as drafted. versionbits
BIP 9 Currently softforks have been done by the isSuperMajority mechanism, meaning when 95% of the last X blocks has a version number higher than Y the fork is deployed. A new way of doing this is currently being worked on and that uses all bits of the version number, appropriately being called versionbits. So instead of a fork happening when the version is larger than (for example) 00000000011 (3), a fork happens when (for example) the 3rd bit is up (so 00100000011). This way softforks can be deployed simultaneous and independent of each other.
copy/paste from IRC, since I don't know what this specifically means: CodeShark: so right now it's just a unit that implements the versionbits logic but does not demonstrate its usage I thought it would be better to actually integrate in a separate PR, but I can add a demonstration sipa: separate commit, same PR - i think we need something that's mergable as a whole, to be able to see whether the whole thing easily backports Codeshark (who's implementing versionbits) had some more remarks but no one present had seemed to reviewed it, so not much use in discussing things further.
The bitcoin-dev mailing list is intended for technical discussions only. There's things that don't belong there but need to be discussed anyway. Now this is done in bitcoin-dev, but the volume of this is getting too big. There's recently also an influx of really inappropriate posts, level kindergarden. For the things that don't belong on bitcoin-dev, but need to be discussed anyway there's a new list being created namely bitcoin-discuss as well as clear policies and moderation for both.
Bitcoin-discuss was created, but the admin password wasn't distributed to jgarzik who's willing to guide the moderation. Seperate moderation-proposals have been done meanwhile. People just want it to move on.
Since none of the people who proposed a moderation-scheme are present we'll let them discuss it among each other and post their decisions publicly. CHECKSEQUENCEVERIFY
CheckLockTimeVerify (CLTV) repurposes the nSequence field (nSequence are 4 bytes intended for sequencing time-locked transactions, but this never got used). However, there's no way use these values in a bitcoin script. CheckSequenceVerify (CSV) makes this field accessible to bitcoin scripts. EDIT: Turns out this is not entirely correct as it is relative locktime that repurposes the nSequence field.
CLTV is pretty much done. Check to see maaku moving one of the bits to allow for other implementations to have better granularity has any objections. As long as we're using as few bits as possible the exact semantics are less important for most people. sipa points out a possible bug that influences the wallet. CSV is not on target for the end of of the month, although a lot of work and progress has been made.
Review and ACK/NACK of 6312 BIP-68: Mempool-only sequence number constraint verification Review and ACK/NACK of 6566 BIP-113: Mempool-only median time-past as endpoint for lock-time calculations Participants wumpus Wladimir J. van der Laan sipa Pieter Wuille btcdrak btcdrak gmaxwell Gregory Maxwell morcos Alex Morcos maaku Mark Friedenbach CodeShark Eric Lombrozo BlueMatt Matt Corallo sdaftuar Suhas Daftuar warren Warren Togami GreenIsMyPepper Joseph Poon davec Dave Collins cfields Cory Fields jonasschnelli Jonas Schnelli Comic relief 19:21 sdaftuar it sounds like everyone is ok with the BIP as drafted then? 19:21 wumpus yes 19:21 gmaxwell I think so. 19:22 davec yes 19:22 sipa well, the only person with concerns was cfields, who doesn't seem to be here :) 19:22 gmaxwell sipa: he can raise concerns later too! 19:22 cfields dammit! 19:22 sipa cfields: too late! 19:22 gmaxwell ha 19:23 cfields did i really miss my third one of these in a row?
Bitcoin dev IRC meeting in layman's terms (2015-10-22)
Once again my attempt to summarize and explain the weekly bitcoin developer meeting in layman's terms. Link to last weeks summarization Disclaimer Please bear in mind I'm not a developer and I'd have problems coding "hello world!", so some things might be incorrect or plain wrong. Like any other write-up it likely contains personal biases, although I try to stay as neutral as I can. There are no decisions being made in these meetings, so if I say "everyone agrees" this means everyone present in the meeting, that's not consensus, but since a fair amount of devs are present it's a good representation. The dev IRC and mailinglist are for bitcoin development purposes. If you have not contributed actual code to a bitcoin-implementation, this is probably not the place you want to reach out to. There are many places to discuss things that the developers read, including this sub-reddit. link to this week logsMeeting minutes by meetbot Main topics discussed where: Mempool Memory Usage LevelDB replacement Median Past locktime & CLTV Short topics/notes BIP 9 Versionbits PR #6816 is ready for implementation and needs more reviews. A 3 month moderation period on the bitcoin-dev mailinglist has started, as well as a new list bitcoin-discuss. more details: http://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2015-Octobe011591.html "bitcoin.org had incorrect release notes for 0.11.1. It's corrected now. They had posted the release notes for the initial RC and not updated them. Process wise it would be good to watch out for that in the future." Mempool Memory Usage
When a transaction is relayed across the network it is held by the nodes in memory, until it gets into a block. All these transactions that sit in memory are called the memorypool or mempool for short. Like we could see during the spam-attack if there's a big back-log of transactions that couldn't make it in the blockchain this mempool can get pretty big resulting in nodes crashing. To stop this from happening devs created a mechanism to reject and/or remove transactions from the mempool. This mempool limiting got merged this week. Also relevant: There is an already existing limit on the database cache size called "dbCache". The default value for that is 100MB.
Testing shows there's a discrepancy between the configured mempool limit and the actual memory usage. This is caused by the amount of UTXO data when processing transactions. This data is only flushed after a block is processed (so temporarily exceeding the cache limit set in dbCache). There are 2 "obvious" solutions for this:
Always enforce the UTXO cache limit, just like the mempool limit is always enforced. Downside for that is if you misconfigure your mempool limit an attack can blow away your UTXO cache, which significantly slows down validation and propagation.
Take the UTXO cache into account when limiting the mempool. Downside for that is that you could construct transactions which require way more cache space and thereby more easily kick out other transactions.
A more optimal solution would be to give priority in the cache to things in the mempool. Ways to achieve that are to kick UTXO's from transaction that are evicted from the mempool out of the cache and from transactions that never made it into the mempool. Something TheBlueMatt is working on
Continue to research and optimize. LevelDB replacement
LevelDB is the database system currently used in bitcoin. Since this is not being maintained for some time devs are looking for replacements.
jgarzik worked on a patch for SQLite Some people express concerns whether the performance will be good enough with SQLite, but there are no benchmark results yet.
Do research into other options Do lots of benchmarks and report results Median Past locktime & CLTV
When a block is created miners include a timestamp. This timestamp has to be between the median of the previous 11 blocks and the network-adjusted time +2 hours. So this timestamp can vary a decent amount from the real time. With the introduction of lock-time transactions, that are only valid after a certain time, miners are incentivised to lie about the time in order to include time-locked transactions (and their fees) that wouldn't otherwise be valid. BIP 113 enables the usage of GetMedianTimePast (the median of the previous 11 blocks) from the prior block in lock-time transactions to combat this behaviour. Users can compensate for this by adding 1 hour (6 blocks) to their lock times. CLTV stands for CheckLockTimeVerify, BIP65 Commonly reffered to as: How you thought nLockTime worked before you actually tried to use it.
CLTV is ready to be merged (and has been merged at time of writing) Questions of whether to add median past locktime as mempool only or as softfork Overall questions as to what to include in the CLTV deployment, what to include as mem-pool only and what as softfork. Median past locktime violates current 'standard' behavior, so we would prefer to have that violation dead in the network before the median past locktime softfork moves forward.
review BIP-113: Mempool-only median time-past as endpoint for lock-time calculations review the CLTV backports (done and merged at time of writing) Backport median past locktime to 0.10 and 0.11 Participants btcdrak btcdrak sipa Pieter Wuille gmaxwell Gregory Maxwell BlueMatt Matt Corallo morcos Alex Morcos petertodd Peter Todd CodeShark Eric Lombrozo jgarzik Jeff Garzik maaku Mark Friedenbach kanzure Bryan Bishop jcorgan Johnathan Corgan Luke-Jr Luke Dashjr jonasschnelli Jonas Schnelli sdaftuar Suhas Daftuar
Newbs might not know this, but bitcoin recently came out of an intense internal drama. Between July 2015 and August 2017 bitcoin was attacked by external forces who were hoping to destroy the very properties that made bitcoin valuable in the first place. This culminated in the creation of segwit and the UASF (user activated soft fork) movement. The UASF was successful, segwit was added to bitcoin and with that the anti-decentralization side left bitcoin altogether and created their own altcoin called bcash. Bitcoin's price was $2500, soon after segwit was activated the price doubled to $5000 and continued rising until here we are today at $15000. During this drama, I took time away from writing open source code to help educate and argue on reddit, twitter and other social media. I came up with a reading list for quickly copypasting things. It may be interesting today for newbs or anyone who wants a history lesson on what exactly happened during those two years when bitcoin's very existence as a decentralized low-trust currency was questioned. Now the fight has essentially been won, I try not to comment on reddit that much anymore. There's nothing left to do except wait for Lightning and similar tech to become mature (or better yet, help code it and test it) In this thread you can learn about block sizes, latency, decentralization, segwit, ASICBOOST, lightning network and all the other issues that were debated endlessly for over two years. So when someone tries to get you to invest in bcash, remind them of the time they supported Bitcoin Unlimited.
BIP: Using Median time-past as endpoint for locktime calculations | Thomas Kerin | Aug 18 2015
Thomas Kerin on Aug 18 2015: -----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE----- Hash: SHA512 Hi all, In collaboration with Mark Friedenbach, we have drawn up a proposal for using the median time of the past 11 blocks in locktime calculations. BIP: XX Title: Median time-past as endpoint for lock-time calculations Author: Thomas Kerin <me at thomaskerin.io>
Mark Friedenbach <[mark at friedenbach.org](https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/mailman/listinfo/bitcoin-dev)>
Status: Draft Type: Standards Track Created: 2015-08-10 ==Abstract== This BIP is a proposal to redefine the semantics used in determining a time-locked transaction's eligibility for inclusion in a block. The median of the last 11 blocks is used instead of the block's timestamp, ensuring that it increases monotonically with each block. ==Motivation== At present, transactions are excluded from inclusion in a block if the present time or block height is less than or equal to that specified in the locktime. Since the consensus rules do not mandate strict ordering of block timestamps, this has the unfortunate outcome of creating a perverse incentive for miners to lie about the time of their blocks in order to collect more fees by including transactions that by wall clock determination have not yet matured. This BIP proposes comparing the locktime against the median of the past 11 block's timestamps, rather than the timestamp of the block including the transaction. Existing consensus rules guarantee this value to monotonically advance, thereby removing the capability for miners to claim more transaction fees by lying about the timestamps of their block. This proposal seeks to ensure reliable behaviour in locktime calculations as required by BIP65, BIP68, and BIPXX (OP_CHECKSEQUENCEVERIFY). ==Specification== The values for transaction locktime remain unchanged. The difference is only in the calculation determining whether a transaction can be included. Instead of an unreliable timestamp, the following function is used to determine the current block time for the purpose of checking lock-time constraints:
Lock-time constraints are checked by the consensus method IsFinalTx(), or LockTime() under BIP68. These methods take the block time as one parameter. This BIP proposes that after activation calls to IsFinalTx() or LockTime() within consensus code use the return value of GetMedianTimePast(pindexPrev) instead. A reference implementation of this proposal is provided in the following git repository: https://github.com/maaku/bitcoin/tree/medianpasttimelock ==Deployment== We reuse the double-threshold switchover mechanism from BIPs 34 and 66, with the same thresholds, but for block.nVersion = 4. The new rules are in effect for every block (at height H) with nVersion = 4 and at least 750 out of 1000 blocks preceding it (with heights H-1000...H-1) also have nVersion = 4. Furthermore, when 950 out of the 1000 blocks preceding a block do have nVersion = 4, nVersion = 3 blocks become invalid, and all further blocks enforce the new rules. It is recommended that this soft-fork deployment trigger include other related proposals for improving Bitcoin's lock-time capabilities, such as BIP 65, BIP68 and CHECKSEQUENCEVERIFY. ==Acknowledgements== Mark Friedenbach for designing and authoring the reference implementation of this BIP. Thomas Kerin authored this BIP document. ==Compatibility== Transactions generated using time-based lock-time will take approximately an hour longer to confirm than would be expected under the old rules. This is not known to introduce any compatibility concerns with existing protocols. ==References== [https://github.com/bitcoin/bips/blob/mastebip-0065.mediawiki BIP65: OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY] [https://github.com/bitcoin/bips/blob/mastebip-0068.mediawiki BIP68: Consensus-enforced transaction replacement signaled via sequence numbers] [https://github.com/bitcoin/bips/blob/mastebip-00.mediawiki BIPXX: CHECKSEQUENCEVERIFY] ==Copyright== This document is placed in the public domain. My PGP key can be found here: <https://thomaskerin.io/me.pub.asc> -----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE----- Version: GnuPG v2 iQIcBAEBCgAGBQJV0oi8AAoJEAiDZR291eTl2soP/1MOjgQDncoUdMptqfeqMLfU ewENNPLQwXXje7PFn/gIVa+Ghxu+f9rrRHt6v8Udd4wsnDTqhz2gV6dKCyF0K4IS seLTH2kyTfPGm1KOp6WSwvxoyc5iWLBH4wkSm4oI9WmXkLzDq0yEYUDE8t9yNYwf 0Fgrg1KPIP4bhoxWchEa237rrH/qTh0Zdxdj/N0YCrX9u4fBy+xoTM6gnt0bFCK2 SaGXvC8PsA23gkJjjwFnWh/JU0Q5BJTElUsq1re3gmwcnLNKyB5cx0bFephk2pFd NC3rqEIIVPd7aLs+lWmD4/NXdm+VtUEQo3MmQ1YW5zwjeoJxZhfMfXwmQw3vw2f7 FSyExUXNNwh2lMoLCcWvWWEOKYaSV9iLX4TacvpbOSDQgz3rDl3iqeLmSgp3S8M3 Se1S9AzilJsT0jIe2Ob2hu/gXEXeBmI9k2kRJELSaIFgCWadUky63NwNNfRipiBq USroBIym2dpXFLygcwgwf6F/yAYYg6/5QiUKclhqvxArxVEcijw18SHGZVYpW83S Q0mzJnRVGF7yscJl84zHyAj5QMWoMFgKSqFbOLcmNDUPLoaFJxAGezGCLXNaHinA LY5Qp0t0Vg4hXi6QcCiWv2U8E1K4oN5VZNSlagUyXsAHd3c4icZTVj+TTWKJ7GLB Gmbe3i9G90rpgDbHWXFq =EQdY -----END PGP SIGNATURE----- original: http://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2015-August/010348.html
Creation of [bitcoin-discuss] mailing list planning
6706 “CLTV IsSuperMajority() soft-fork, rebased for v0.10.2”
6707 “CLTV IsSuperMajority() soft-fork, rebased for v0.11.0”
All Unspecified 5 Contact miners about PR #6769 "Test LowS in standardness, removes nuisance malleability vector" and turning on the long-existing anti-malleability standardness rules in Bitcoin Core Bluematt & Gmaxwell Unspecified 6 Clarification from maaku regarding nSequence for BIP68 Continue review and ACKs of PR
6312 “BIP-68: Mempool-only sequence number constraint verification”
6564 “BIP-112: Mempool-only CHECKSEQUENCEVERIFY”
6566 “BIP-113: Mempool-only median time-past as endpoint for lock-time
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Bitcoin-Mine: Hier werden Millionen verdient Galileo ...
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